Fan communities have been enabled by digital media and certainly not limited. A good example is streaming sites such as Apple Music, Spotify, Tidal, that have allowed fans to have early access to music releases permitted that they are signed up to the app. When creating music streaming site Tidal, Jay Z removed all his albums from Apple music, subsequently directing his ‘Superfans’ to his own streaming site. Here, it can be argued that digital media does require the ‘Superfan’, because without the person that will pay money to be part of that service – it cannot exist. The music world is a great example of how digital platforms have transformed media. When looking at album sales, streaming is now taken into consideration. The days where only physical album/single sales were counted on is over and artists now encourage their fans to listen and buy their music online. High street stores such as HMV have lost significant clientele and profit due to this drastic change in consuming music – it seems the ‘Superfans’ have become more technologically advanced and aware. CD sales have reduced in this digital age.
Lepinoy, S. (2017) Media/Fans. [Lecture to GMD Year 2] London College of communication